ساخت و رواسازی پرسشنامۀ توانمندی‌های منش ایرانیان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران. (نویسندۀ مسئول)

3 دکترای تخصصی، استاد دانشگاه فرلی‌دیکنسون آمریکا.

10.22054/jem.2020.52575.2052

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر طبقه‌بندی توانمندی‌ها و فضائل منش و ساخت و رواسازی پرسشنامۀ سنجش آن در جمعیت دانشجویان ایرانی بود. روش پژوهش حاضر از نوع آمیخته کیفی-کمی بود. در بخش کیفی از طرح نظریۀ داده‌بنیاد (GT) استفاده شد. 35 دانشجو در قالب 6 گروه کانونی ( شامل 24 دانشجوی دختر و 11 دانشجوی پسر) از جامعه دانشجویان کارشناسی و کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تهران به شیوه قضاوتی انتخاب شده و مورد مصاحبه نیم ساختار یافته قرار گرفتند. پاسخ ها به شیوۀ تحلیل مضمون و بکارگیری دو روش تحلیل قالب و ماتریس در نرم افزار MAXQDA10 تحلیل شدند. یافته‌ها نشان‌دهندۀ وجود چهار عامل یا فضیلت در جامعه ایرانی بود که عبارتند از خِرد (شامل توانمندی‌های تفکر تحلیلی، خودنظم‌دهی، میانه‌روی و اعتدال، عشق به یادگیری)، شجاعت (شامل توانمندی‌های جرأت‌مندی، و صداقت)، انسانیت (شامل توانمندی‌های عدالت و انصاف، مهربانی، گذشت و بخشش)، و تعالی (شامل توانمندی‌های تحسین زیبایی و شگرفی، امیدواری، و معنویت). مطالعه دوم با روش غیرآمایشی (توصیفی) و طرح پیمایش روی جمعیت دانشجویی 456 نفری به اجرا در آمد. تحلیل مولفه‌های اصلی با چرخش واریماکس، ساختار چهار عاملی را نشان داد. این یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که پرسشنامۀ توانمندی‌های منش ایرانیان می‌تواند داده‌های معتبر و قابل اتکایی فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Construction and validation of Iranian Character Strengths Inventory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Khodayarifard 1
  • Elaheh Hejazi 1
  • Marjan Hassaniraad 2
  • Robert McGrath 3
1 Associate Professor, University of Tehran
2 Professor, University of Tehran (Corresponding Author)
3 Professor, Fairleigh Dickinson University
چکیده [English]

The aim of the present study was to classify character strengths and virtues, and construct and validate its assessment questionnaire in the Iranian student population. The present research method was of the qualitative-quantitative mixed type. In the qualitative section, Grounded Theory (GT) was used. Thirty-five students in the form of six focus groups (including 24 female students and 11 male students) from among the undergraduate and graduate students of University of [1]Tehran were selected, using judgmental sampling and were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed by content analysis and the use of two methods of framework and matrix analyses through the MAXQDA10 software. The findings indicated the existence of four factors or virtues in Iranian society: wisdom (including analytical thinking, self-regulation, moderation and prudence, and love of learning), courage (including bravery and honesty), humanity (including justice and fairness, kindness, and forgiveness) and transcendence (including appreciation of beauty and excellence, hope, and spirituality). The second study was conducted using a non-experimental (descriptive) method and a survey plan on 456 students. Analysis of the main components by varimax rotation showed a four-factor structure. These findings suggest that the Iranian Character Strengths Questionnaire can provide reliable data.


 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Virtues
  • Character Strengths
  • Cultural context
  • positive psychology
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