عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was the validation of 3 wisdom scales consist of Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory and Fundamental Values Scale. In this cross-sectional study, 899 person (585 females and 314 males) high school and college students were selected by multistage cluster sampling and adults were chosen by available Sampling. The Cronbach's alpha was used to calculate the reliability of each scale. Construct validity, Convergent validity and Divergent validity were used to calculate the validity of each scale. Cronbach's alpha for each scale was in the acceptable range (α from 0.565 to 0.899). Construct validity was examined by factor analysis and principal component (PCA), Factor analysis of Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale confirmed the 4-factor solution, as name Self-approved, reflective, cognitive and affective,they Respectively explained 15.61&6.77 & 4.72 and 4.28 percent of the total variance. Factor analysis of Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory confirmed the presence of 2 factors, Cosmic and Equanimity they Respectively explained 27.64 and 10.18 percent of the total variance. Factor analysis of Fundamental Values Scale confirmed the presence of 3 factors, first dimension is Spirituality, harmony and intelligence, twice is Sense of humor and third is Warmth they Respectively explained 32.04 and 6.45 and 5.95 percent of the total variance. For convergent validity of wisdom scales, two indicators of age and purpose in life were used. The correlation between Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory and Fundamental Values Scale with age and purpose in life Respectively is (0.127 & .0425), (0.169 &0.518 ) and (0.292 & 0.091) This results showed that all three scales of wisdom have acceptable convergent validity. For Divergent validity of wisdom scales, alienation was used as an indicator. The correlation between Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory and Fundamental Values Scale with alienation Respectively is -0.309 and -0.344 and -0.238.