سنجش مقایسه‌پذیری سازه و تحلیل کارکرد افتراقی سئوال‌ها (DIF) و بلوک‌های (DTF)آزمون علوم پایه هشتم تیمز 2007 در بین دانش‌آموزان ایران و آمریکا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

هیات علمی پژوهشگاه آموزش و پرورش

چکیده

در سنجش‌های بین‌المللی مانند تیمز و پرلز لازم است تا آزمون‏های مورد استفاده از هم‌ارزی سازه که به مقایسه‌پذیری سازه معروف است برخوردار بوده و سئوال‌ها تا حد ممکن برای تمام کشورها و گروه‏های مشارکت‌کننده، یکسان عمل نمایند. در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شد تا مقایسه‌پذیری سازه‌ای آزمون علوم پایه هشتم (سوم راهنمایی) تیمز 2007 و کارکرد افتراقی سئوال‌های آن در بین دانش‌اموزان ایران و آمریکا و همچنین میزان تأثیر سئوال‌های دارای کارکرد افتراقی بر عملکرد دانش‌آموزان ایرانی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها و پاسخگویی به سئوال‌های پژوهش از ترکیبی از رویکردهای تحلیل عاملی تأییدی و نظریه سئوال ـ پاسخ استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل عاملی تأییدی نشان می‌دهد که آزمون علوم از مقایسه‌پذیری سازه در بین دو گروه مورد مطالعه برخوردار است. این یافته بدان معنا است که دانش‌آموزان دو کشور ایران و آمریکا برای دادن پاسخ به سئوال‌های علوم از چارچوب مفهومی یکسانی استفاده می‌کنند. با این حال، نتایج حاصل از تحلیل کارکرد افتراقی سئوال‌ها نشان می‌دهد 62% سئوال‌های درس علوم تیمز 2007 علیه دانش‌آموزان ایران از کارکرد افتراقی برخوردارند. به طور خلاصه، به نظر می‌رسد که عملکرد ضعیف دانش‌آموزان ایران در درس علوم تیمز 2007 را نمی‌توان به کارکرد افتراقی سئوال‌ها نسبت داد و بایستی علل آن را جایی دیگر جستجو کرد. مسئولان وزارت آموزش و پرورش و متولیان امر آموزش در کشور بایستی تلاش کنند تا با تهیه محتواهای آموزشی مناسب، مفاهیم مهم هر حوزه را به صورت زنجیره‌وار و در ارتباط با یکدیگر آموزش دهند و تلاش کنند تا توانایی و مهارت تفکر واگرا و چند بُعدی را در دانش‌آموزان پرورش دهند. همچنین بایستی تلاش شود تا از روش سنتی آموزش که به شکل سخنرانی و عمدتا نظری صورت می‌گیرد فاصله گرفت و دانش‌آموزان را درگیر فعالیتهای عملی و آزمایشگاهی نمود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Structural Comparability and Analysis of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Differential Test Functioning (DTF) of TIMSS 2007 8th-Grade Science Test among Iranian and American Students

نویسنده [English]

  • asghar minaei
چکیده [English]

Abstract
It is necessary for international tests, such as TIMSS and PIRLS, to have Structural Equivalence, also known as Structural Comparability. In other words, test items should be functionally identical for all the participant countries and groups. The present research was an attempt to examine the structural comparability of TIMSS 2007 8th-Grade Science Test and differential functioning of its items among Iranian and American students, as well as the effect of items with differential functioning on the performance of Iranian students. A combination of confirmatory factor analysis and Item Response Theory was used to analyze the data and answer research questions. The results of factor analysis indicated that the science test had structural comparability between the two groups. This finding suggests that both Iranian and American students use an identical conceptual framework to answer the test items. However, the results of differential item functioning analysis indicated that 62% of TIMSS 2007 8th-Grade Science Test items had differential functioning against Iranian students. In short, the poor performance of Iranian students in TIMSS 2007 Science Test cannot be attributed to differential item functioning, and the causes should be sought elsewhere. Ministry of Education officials and administrators should try to teach the key concepts of any field in an interrelated manner and to cultivate divergent and multidimensional thinking skills and ability in students by preparing appropriate educational contents. Moreover, attempts must be made to distance the system from the traditional method of teaching, which mainly consisted of theoretical lectures, and involve students in practical and laboratory activities.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: TIMSS
  • Factorial Invariance
  • differential item functioning
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • Item Response Theory
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