فراتحلیل مطالعات انجام شده بر اضطراب مرگ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

کارشناسی ارشد، سنجش و اندازه‌گیری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شناخت ویژگی‌ها و عوامل روان‌شناختی و چگونگی برانگیخته شدن اضطراب مرگ در شرایط زندگی امروزی و همچنین پیشایدها و پیامدهای روانی آن از جمله مباحث مطرح در روان‌شناسی است. تحقیقات بسیاری در رابطه‌ی عوامل مختلف روان‌شناختی با اضطراب مرگ را بررسی کرده‌اند اما گاهی نتایج آن‌ها ناهماهنگ و متناقض بوده و از سویی متغیرهای تبیین کننده در این رابطه به طور دقیق بررسی نشده است. پژوهش فراتحلیلی، مجموعه‌ای از فنون نظام‌دار برای حل تناقض در مورد یافته‌های حاصل از تحقیقات مختلف جهت یک موضوع است. براین اساس پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی رابطه متغیرها و عوامل روان‌شناختی و اضطراب مرگ به شیوه فراتحلیل انجام شد. ابتدا با استفاده از پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی داخلی و نیز دانشگاه‌های شهر تهران نسبت به جمع‌آوری تمام گزارش‌های پژوهشی اقدام شد. نهایتاً نتایج 44 مطالعه انجام شده بین سال‌های 1388 الی 1396 که ملاک ورود به فراتحلیل را داشتند، تحلیل شدند. نتایج فراتحلیل نشان داد که اندازه اثر ترکیبی مطالعات در مدل اثرات ثابت 018/0- و در مدل تصادفی 022/0- می‌باشد که اندازه اثر ترکیبی در هر دو مدل کم است اما در بررسی اندازه اثر متغیرها به طور جداگانه مشاهده شد که متغیرهای باورهای غیرمنطقی، منبع کنترل، فرسودگی شغلی، همجوشی شناختی، خودشکوفایی، خودتعیین‌گری، معنایابی، امید به زندگی و روان‌نژندگرایی دارای اندازه اثر متوسط هستند. بنابراین، نتیجه گرفته می‌شود که آگاهی از مرگ در نظریه‌های مختلفی اعم از مدیریت ترس، درمان‌های وجودی و شناختی - رفتاری نقش مهمی ایفا می‌کند. از این میان نظریه‌ی مدیریت ترس، رویکردی نظری، پیشرو و تأثیرگذار در خصوص اضطراب مرگ است که می‌تواند متغیرهای مذکور را تبیین نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Meta- analysis of studies on death anxiety

نویسندگان [English]

  • faranak boroujerdi
  • Somayeh Mazandarani
M.A. in Assessment and Measurement, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Understanding the psychological characteristics and factors and provoking the anxiety of death in today's living conditions, as well as its psychological events and consequences are among the topics discussed in psychology. Many researches have investigated the relationship between different psychological factors and death anxiety, but sometimes their results are inconsistent and contradictory and, on the other hand, explanatory variables have not been thoroughly investigated in this regard. Meta-analysis is a set of systematic techniques for solving contradictions in the findings of various researches on a subject. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between psychological factors and psychological factors and death anxiety in a meta-analysis method. At first, using all the internal databases as well as the universities of Tehran, we started to collect all the research reports. Finally, the results of 44 studies conducted between 2009 and 2011 that were the criterion for entering the meta-analysis were analyzed. The results of the meta-analysis showed that the size of the combined effect of the studies in the static effects model was 0.018 and in the randomized model -0.022, where the size of the combined effect in both models was low, but it was observed separately in the study of the effect size of the variables. The variables of irrational beliefs, control source, job burnout, cognitive fusion, self-actualization, self-determination, meaning, life expectancy and neuroticism are medium-sized. Therefore, it is concluded that knowledge of death plays an important role in various theories including fear management, existential therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Among them, the theory of fear management is a theoretical, leading and influential approach to death anxiety that can explain these variables.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • death anxiety
  • psychological factors
  • Meta-analysis
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